We have improved our forecasting skill at using the Indian Ocean as a climate driver.

Modelling has shown the trade-off between sowing date and frost risk. Frost forecasts may only be of value in areas where there is small yield potential with delayed sowing and where there is a high frost risk.

The risk of frost is significantly affected when there are large monthly or seasonal temperature deviations during a particularly warm or cold season.

Focusing on sub-tropical eastern Australia – including the northern grains belt, southern cane industry, the southern Qld and northern NSW dairy industry, subtropical grazing, most of Australia’s cotton industry and a range of subtropical horticultural crops – this project identified key climate science R&D necessary to improve existing forecast skill.